Based on "Hill & Swayze’s Railroad Guide" of 1862 & 1863


BLUE MOUNTAIN, the present terminus of the Alabama & Tennessee River Railroad, is a very small village, principally noted for its being a center for stage lines, and proposed railroads, one of which is now being built from Rome, Ga., by the Confederate Government.
DECATUR, a pleasant post-town, in Morgan County, on the left bank of the Tennessee River, and the designated Western terminus of the Savannah, Griffin & North Alabama Railroad.
EUFAULA, a handsome and pleasant post-town of Barbour County, on the right bank of the Chattahoochee River. It is finely situated on a high bluff, which rises about 200 feet above the level of the river. It is the terminus of the main line of the South-western railroad. Population about 3,400.
HUNTSVILLE, a beautiful city, capital of Madison County. It contains many handsome and costly buildings, five or six churches, two seminaries, and about 4,000 inhabitants.
MOBILE, a wealthy city on the West side of Mobile River, 30 miles from the Gulf; is connected with the inland cities on the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers by steamboats. The bay is blockaded by the Federal fleet, but the entrance is protected against them by a number of very powerful fortifications. Population, 30,000.
MONTGOMERY, capitol of the State, on the Alabama River, 340 miles above Mobile, with which it is connected by regular lines of steamboats. Population, 12,000.
POLLARD, at the junction of the Mobile & Great Northern with the Alabama & Florida Road, will be a town of importance. It takes its name from the President of the Alabama & Florida Rail-Road.
SELMA, on the Alabama River, 70 miles below Montgomery, is an active business place. The Alabama & Mississippi Rivers Railroad passes through the city, and forms a link in the great chain of roads from the seaboard to the Mississippi. The road is not, however, in operation East of Selma, but the connection is made with Montgomery by a line of steamers belonging to the company. Population, 5,000.
SHELBY SPRINGS, is a most delightful spot, and is fitted up as a summer resort for families or gusts. Also, dinner house for passengers by the up train. J. J. Norris, Proprietor.
STEVENSON, in Jackson County, at the junction of the Memphis & Charleston railroad with the Nashville & Chattanooga railroad, 37 miles from Chattanooga.
TALLADEGA, is somewhat generally known as being in the gold region of North Alabama. It is an old town of considerable activity in trade, and promises to rank among the leading inland cities.


There are no cities in Arkansas in any of the railroad guides.


There are no cities in Florida in any of the railroad guides.


ALBANY, a flourishing town, in Baker County, on the right bank of Flint River, at the mouth of Knichafonee Creek, 107 miles south of Macon. Steamboats navigate the river to this point. Albany contains several churches, and is a town of considerable importance. Population about 900.
AMERICUS, a fine post-town, capital of Sumter County, on the Muckalee Creek, 70 miles south-west of Macon. It contains three or four churches, two academies, and 2,000 inhabitants.
ATHENS, a flourishing town in Clarke County, situated on the Oconee River, at the terminus of the Athens branch of the Georgia railroad, 92 miles WNW from Augusta. The situation is healthy and the climate delightful. Mong the public buildings are five churches, a town-hall, bank, and several Hotels. The Franklin College is one of the best institutions in the State. Population about 4,000.
ATLANTA, a flourishing city of Fulton County, known as the Gate City, from its being the grand center of all the rail-roads north, south, east, and west. The situation is elevated, and remarkably healthy. It is one of the most active business cities in the Confederacy; contains several fine churches, schools, Machine shops, and other improvements. Population about 20,000.
AUGUSTA, on the Savannah River, 230 miles from its mouth, and the head of navigation, is the second city in the State. It contains several large factories, and is a great center for trade. The situation of the city is the most beautiful of any in the Confederacy. Population, 18,000.
BARNESVILLE, a thriving town of Pike County, 42 miles from Macon, and 18 from Griffin, is situated at the junction of the Upson County Railroad with the Macon & Western Railroad. Population about 900.
BOSTON, a post-town in Thomas County, 11 miles south-east of Thomasville.
COLUMBUS, on the Chattahoochee River, opposite Girard, was one of the largest cotton marts of the State before the war, is also an important railroad center, has several manufactories in successful operation. Population, 10,000.
COVINGTON, capital of Newton County, 130 miles west of Augusta, contains, besides the county buildings, an academy, several stores, and about 400 inhabitants.

CRAWFORDSVILLE, capital of Taliferro County, 65 miles west of Augusta. Population about 800.

CUSHINGVILLE, a post-village in Burke County, 83 miles from Savannah.
CUTHBERT, capital of Randolph County, 113 miles south-west of Macon, and contains, besides the county buildings, three or four churches, and two academies. Population about 900.
DALTON, is a small town at the junction of the East Tennessee & Georgia road with the Western & Atlantic, and promises to be a very important railroad town. Population, about 2,000.
DAVISBOROUGH, a post-town in Washington County, 132 miles from Savannah.
DECATURE, capital of DeKalb County. The situation is one of the most healthful and agreeable. Population, 800.
EAST POINT, a post-office in Fulton County, 6 miles from Atlanta, and at the junction of the Atlanta & West Point railroad with the Macon & Western.
EATONTON, capital of Putnam County, is situated on a high ridge, 20 miles north-west from Milledgeville. It is a place of considerable importance on account of its schools. Population about 900.
FAIRBURN, a post village on the line between Campbell and Fayette Counties, 19 miles from Atlanta.
FORSYTH, capital of Monroe County, contains besides the county buildings, several churches, the Monroe Female University, and about 600 inhabitants.
FORT GAINES, a fine town in Early County, on the Chattahoochee River. It is situated on a high bluff, 160 feet above common water mark. Steamboats navigate the river for about eight months of the year. This is the terminus of the Fort Gaines branch of the South-western railroad.
FORT VALLEY, a post-town in Houston County, 29 miles south-west from Macon. The Columbus branch of the South-western road here deflects to the right or west. Population, 900.
GORDON, in Wilkerson County, at the junction of the Milledgeville branch with the main line of the Georgia Central railroad. Population about 1,200.
GRANTVILLE, a post-town in Coweta County, 51 miles from Atlanta.
GREENSBOROUGH, capital of Green County, 83 miles west of Augusta, is a very pleasant town. Population about 800.
GRIFFIN, a flourishing town on the Macon & Western road, capital of Spalding County. The situation is one of the most pleasant and healthy in the State. Population about 3,000.
HALCYONDALE, a post-town in Scriven County, 50 miles from Savannah.
HOGANSVILLE, a post-town in Troup County, 13 miles from La Grange, the county seat.
JONESBOROUGH, a post-village in Fayette County, on the Macon & Western road, 22 miles from Atlanta, and 21 from Griffin. Population about 900.
LA GRANGE, capital of Troup County, is 71 miles from Atlanta, and is celebrated for its schools. The following named schools are located there: La Grange High School, the Brownwood University, the La Grange Female Seminary, and the La Grange Female Institution. Population about 1,400.
LEXINGTON, a thriving town, capital of Oglethorpe County is situated in a healthy and fertile region. The main part of the town is three miles from the Athens branch of the Georgia road.  Population about 1,400.
LONG CANE, a post-town in Troup County, 80 miles from Atlanta, and 7 miles from West Point.
MACON, capital of Bibb County, on the Ocmulgee River, 191 miles WNW of Savannah, and 103 miles SE of Atlanta. Macon is the center of an active trade. Rose Hill Cemetery, situated on the river, half a mile distant from the city, is much admired by visitors. Population about 8,000.
MADISON, capital of Morgan County is a fine town 104 miles from Augusta, surrounded by a beautiful and fertile country. Madison has long been distinguished for excellent schools. About 300 pupils receive instruction here. Population about 1,600.
MARIETTA, capital of Cobb County, is a handsome town, situated on an eminence that overlooks the country around. It is surrounded by a fine farming country. It contains the State Military Academy, and is a well built and pleasant town. Population 3,000.
MILLEDGEVILLE, capital of the State of Georgia, and seat of justice of Baldwin County, is situated on the west bank of the Oconee River, 158 miles from Savannah. It is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile country, and contains a number of handsome residences. The Oconee River furnishes excellent water power here, and was once navigated below by small steamers, but these are now superceded by railroads. The State House is a fine Gothic edifice. Milledgeville contains a penitentiary, an Arsenal of the State, a court-house, five churches, one academy, and is the seat of the Oglethorpe College. Population about 4,000.
MILLEN, a post-town in Scriven County, at the junction of the Augusta & Savannah Railroad with the Georgia Central.
NEWNAN, capital of Coweta County, is a fine promising town. It contains a brick Court House, two churches, two academies, and a newspaper office. Besides the railroad from Atlanta to West Pointe passing through the town, the new road from Griffin to Decatur, Alabama, also passes through it.
OGEECHEE, a post-town in Scriven County, 62 miles from Savannah.
OGLETHORPE, a fine city in Macon County, on the Flint River, and 50 miles south-west of Macon. Population about 2,600.
OCONEE, in Washington County, 146 miles from Savannah.
POWERSVILLE, a post-office in Houston County, 21 miles from Macon.
SAVANNAH, on Savannah River 18 miles from the ocean, and 96 miles South-West of Charleston, S. C., is the largest commercial city in the State. It is another of those beleaguered cities on our sea-coast continually watched by the enemy and its inhabitants expecting it to be assailed at any moment. Fort Pulaski, the only fort of prominence at the mouth of the Savannah River, was surrendered to the enemy on the 11th of April, 1862, and which he now holds. The city and its approaches are securely fortified, the commanding general determined to destroy the city rather than allow the enemy to possess it. Population, in 1860, 35,000
SCARBOROUGH, a post-town in Scriven County, 70 miles from Savannah.
SMITHVILLE, a post-town in Lumpkin County, and at which place the Albany branch of the South-western railroad deflects to the left.
SOCIAL CIRCLE, a post-town of Walton County, pleasantly situated, and was christened by the original settlers “English.”
STONE MOUNTAIN, a post-town in DeKalb County. At this place is an isolated, dome-shaped granite rock, which is visited annually by several thousand persons, and is considered one of the most magnificent natural objects in the State. The height is about 2200 feet above the sea. A tower 180 feet high was erected on the summit, commanding a prospect of great extent and picturesque beauty, but which fell several years since.
TENNILLE, in Washington County, 134 miles from Savannah.
THE ROCK, in Upson County, a post-town, 50 miles from Macon.
THOMASTON, capital of Upson County , has a handsome brick courthouse, two churches, two academies, and several stores. There is a cotton factory on Potato Creek, one mile from the village, which employs, when in operation, 50 operatives. Population about 2,000.
THOMASVILLE, a post-town, and capital of Thomas County, 200 miles from Savannah, and at present the terminus of the Savannah, Albany & Gulf Railroad. It contains a court-house which is creditable to the county, and a school called the Fletcher Institute, under the direction of the Methodists. Population about 600.
UNION POINT, Green County, at the junction of the Athens Branch with the Georgia road, and 76 miles from Augusta. It has become quite celebrated recently through the exertions of its ladies ministering to the wants of sick and wounded soldiers. They have established a Way-Side Home, and invite all that need as such assistance, without money and without price.
UPATOIE, a post-town in Muscogee County, 20 miles from Columbus.
WARRENTON, a pleasant and flourishing post-village, capital of Warren County, on Goulden’s Creek, 4 miles South of the Georgia road, with which it is connected by a branch.  Population about 1,000.
WARTHOURVILLE, a post-town in Liberty County, 40 miles South-west of Savannah, is the largest place in the county. It contains two flourishing academies, and about 400 inhabitants.
WASHINGTON, a handsome town, capital of Wilkes County is situated on the dividing ridge between the Broad and Little Rivers, 16 miles North of the Georgia road, with which it connects by a branch.  Population about 1,600.
WAYNESBOROUGH, a town of some importance, capital of Burke County, 32 miles South of Augusta. It contains, besides the county buildings, two churches, an academy and several stores. It is the only town of importance on the line of the Augusta & Savannah Rail-Road.
WEST POINT, on the West shore of the Chattahoochee River, is the point of junction of the Montgomery & West Point road with the Atlanta & West Point road. Population, 2,000.
WINCHESTER, a post-village in Macon County, 39 miles from Macon.


PONCHATOULA, at present the terminus of the New Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern railroad, is a post-town of some importance.


BRANDON, capital of Rankin County, 14 miles east of Jackson, and 59 from Vicksburg. Population about 700.
BROOK HAVEN, a post town in Lawrence County, 58 miles south of Jackson. Population about 400.

CANTON, capital of Madison County, is 23 miles north of Jackson. It is the Northern terminus of the New Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern railroad, and the Southern terminus of the Mississippi Central railroad.

CLINTON, a post-town in Hinds County, 9 miles west of Jackson. It is the seat of the Mississippi College.
COLUMBUS, the capital of Lowndes County, and terminus of the Columbus branch of the Mobile & Ohio railroad.
JACKSON, is situated on Pearl River, and on the Southern (Miss.) Railroad, 45 miles from Vicksburg. It is the seat of the State government. Before the war Jackson was a noted cotton market, and one of the most flourishing in the State. It is connected by the New Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern Railroad with all points North and South, and by the Southern Railroad with other Roads East and West. Population, 8,000.
MERIDIAN, on the line of the Mobile & Ohio road, is a village formerly known by the name of Sowashee, and is destined to be a very important railroad city. It is the terminus of the Southern and the Alabama & Mississippi Rivers Railroads. Population, 1,000.
VICKSBURG, 46 miles from Jackson, on the Mississippi River, is now one of the strongholds of the Confederacy. The enemy has made several attempts to take the city, but so far has failed. He has now turned his attention to altering the channel of the river, by digging a canal across the peninsula opposite Vicksburg, by which means he hopes to navigate the Father of Waters without coming in contact with the great natural defenses of Vicksburg. Population in 1860, 5,000.

North Carolina

CHARLOTTE, is a flourishing town, and is destined to be a great railroad center. Population 3,000.
FALLING CREEK, post-town of Wayne County.
FRANKLINTON, post-town of Franklin County, 27 miles from Raleigh. It grew up in very few years, and is one of the most pleasant villages on the Raleigh & Gaston road. Population about 600.
GASTON, at one time the terminus of the Raleigh & Gaston railroad, is situated in Northampton County, on the left bank of the Roanoke River, 86 miles from Raleigh.
GOLDSBORO, two miles from Neuse River, which is navigable for light draft vessels to this point. At one time a force of the enemy ten thousand strong approached the town, both by land and water, and succeeded in getting near enough to the railroad bridge, two miles below, with their gunboats to burn it. A fierce battle ensued, and the enemy was routed. Population, 2,000.
HENDERSON, a thriving post-village in Granville County, 44 miles north of Raleigh.
KINSTON, capital of Lenoir County, 80 miles South-east of Raleigh. It has been the scene of a battle in the present war; but its defenders maintained their ground. The Atlantic & North Carolina railroad is now operated only as far as Kinston.
MORGANTON, capital of Burke County and a pleasant and beautiful town, situated on the Catawba River 200 miles west of Raleigh. It contains a Courthouse, jail, bank and several churches. Population about 700.
MOSELY HALL, post-town of Lenoir County.
NEWBERN, capital of Craven County is situated at the confluence of the Neuse and Trent rivers, about 120 miles South-east of Raleigh. It was for many years the capital of the State; but now, alas, in the possession of our enemies. The Neuse River, which is more than a mile wide at this place, is navigated by steamboats about eight months of the year. The entrance from the sea is through Ocracoke Inlet.
NEWTON, capital of Catawba County is situated in a fertile and beautiful country. It is the seat of one of the best colleges in the State. Population 800.
RALEIGH, capital of the State, is situated a few miles West of Neuse River. It contains several public buildings and charitable institutions, and is an important railroad center. Population 5,000.
RIDGEWAY, a post-town in Warren County, 58 miles from Raleigh, and a terminus of the Roanoke Valley railroad.
SALISBURY, the county seat of Rowan County, is about tem miles west of the Yadkin River, and one hundred and thirty-two miles west of Raleigh. It is one of the most important places in western North Carolina, and is at the eastern terminus of the Western & North Carolina railroad. The North Carolina railroad passes through the town. Population in ’60, 2,500.
STATESVILLE, capital of Iredell County, and at the point of junction of the Atlantic, Tennessee & Ohio railroad with Western North Carolina railroad.
WARRENTON, capital of Warren County, 62 miles from Raleigh, is situated near the source of Fishing Creek, a branch of Tar River. Population 1400.
WELDON, on both sides of Roanoke River, at the head of navigation, is a noted rail-road center.
WILMINGTON, on Cape Fear River, 34 miles from the sea, was in times past noted for its extensive trade in naval stores and lumber, but since the opening of the war it has been frequently threatened by the enemy, and has from that and other causes sunk almost into insignificance. Its approaches by water are strongly fortified, and the city is now more a barracks than a place of trade. It is the center of several important railroads. Population, in 1860, 10,000.

South Carolina

ABBEVILLE, capital of Abbeville district, situated on an affluent of Little River, 97 miles west by north of Columbia. It is connected by a branch with the Greenville & Columbia road. Population 600.
ALISTON, at the junction of the Spartanburg & Union railroad with the Greenville & Columbia rail-road, is in Fairfield district.
ANDERSON, capital of Anderson district; a branch of the Greenville & Columbia road extends to this point. It contains several churches and stores. Population about 400.
CHARLESTON, the largest city in the State, and one of the principal cities of the Confederacy, is situated on a tongue of land between Ashley and Cooper Rivers, which unite immediately below the city, and form a spacious harbor, communicating with the ocean at Sullivan’s Island, 7 miles below. Cooper and Ashley Rivers are from 30 to 40 feet deep, the former 1400, and the latter 2100 yards wide. A sandbar extends across the mouth of the harbor, affording, however two entrances, of which the deepest near Sullivan’s Island, has 16 feet of water at low tide. Population, 55,000.
CHESTER, capital of Chester district, at the junction of the King’s Mountain, with the Charlotte & South Carolina railroad.
COLUMBIA, capital of South Carolina, and seat of justice of Richland District on the left or east bank of the Congaree River, immediately below the confluence of the Saluda and Broad. It is pleasantly situated, and plain and regularly laid out, with streets about 60 feet wide, bordered with ornamental trees. Its public buildings are of the first class, consisting of South Carolina College, Court-House, Market-House, Insane Asylum, several fine Churches, Academies, a theological Seminary and the State-House, which, when finished will be one of the most magnificent on this continent. The work is suspended on account of the war. Population 10,000.
COOSAWATCHIE, capital of Beaufort district, 61 miles from Charleston and 43 from Savannah.
EFFINGHAM, a post-town in Darlington district, 93 miles west of Charleston.
FLORENCE, in Darlington district is situated on the Wilmington & Manchester railroad, and at the point of junction of the North-Eastern and Cheraw & Darlington railroad, and is destined to be a place of importance. It is 107 miles from Wilmington, and 102 miles from Charleston, and forms a shipping point for an extensive section.
GREEN POND, a post-town in Union district, 39 miles from Charleston and 65 from Savannah.
GREENVILLE, a fine town, capital of Greenville district, on Reedy River, near its source, 143 miles north-west of Columbia. Population about 1,400.
KINGSTON, a post-town, capital of Williamsburg district, on the left bank of Black River, 64 miles from Charleston, and 100 miles from Columbia.
KINGSVILLE, a small village, 25 miles South-east of Columbia, is important as the junction of several rail-roads.
MONK’S CORNER, a post-village in Charleston district, 29 miles from Charleston.
POCATALIGO, is a small town, brought into notice recently from its having been the scene of a battle, and the threats of the enemy to advance at that point from their gun-boats. It derives its name, we are informed by a correspondent of the Atlanta Intelligencer, from the following source:
   “One day some of the early settlers on the sound caught a turtle, and were trying to drive him homeward, but they made slow progress with the zigzag locomotion creature. At this juncture some of the shore Indians came up with the party, and said to one of the drivers, ‘Poke he tail he go;’ referring to an excellent method of pushing the varmint along. They followed the natives’ advice and found it succeed admirably—with which result they were so much pleased that they called the place as nearly the sentence as possible. But it has gradually, in the wear of centuries, come down to a plain compound work, to wit: Pocataligo.”
   We cannot be held responsible for the validity of the foregoing, but presume the gentleman who gives the information is well posted.
SPARTANBURG, capital of Spartanburg district. The town contains some fine buildings, among which are those for College purposes, provided for by the bequest of Benjamin Wofford.
YORKVILLE, capital of York district, the northern terminus of the King’s Mountain railroad.


ATHENS, capital of McMinn County, 55 miles from Knoxville, contains, besides the county buildings, several seminaries. Population about 900.
BRISTOL, the point of junction of the Virginia & Tennessee railroad with the East Tennessee & Virginia railroad, is a small town immediately on the line between the States of Tennessee and Virginia. It is a pleasantly situated little town, and will no doubt be the center of considerable business. A newspaper is published here. Population about 700.
CHATTANOOGA, on the Tennessee River, is now reduced from a flourishing shipping port for an extensive circuit, to a military headquarters and city of hospitals. It is the center of several rail-roads. Population in 1860, 5,000.
CLEVELAND, is the point of junction of the Chattanooga branch with the main line of the East Tennessee & Georgia road. It is also the terminus of a proposed road from Ashville, NC. Population, 1,000.
GREENVILLE, capital of Green County, is the seat of Greenville College, and is a finely situated town. Population about 600.
KNOXVILLE, at one time capital of the State, is built on the Holston, 4 miles below the confluence of French and Broad Rivers, and 185 miles east of Nashville. The River is navigable from this point down, for light draft steamboats, at all seasons, and in spring-time, as far up as Kingsport. The city, however, is now amply supplied with railroads, having the East Tennessee & Georgia railroad from the south, and the East Tennessee & Virginia railroad from the east coming into it, and in a short time after the cessation of hostilities, this despoiled section will, with its wonted vigor and enterprise, extend its railroad facilities in every other direction. Knoxville is destined to be one of the first interior railroad centers, and a place of considerable commercial importance. Population, 8,000.
LOUDON, 28 miles from Knoxville, derives its name from the Earl of Loudon, who commanded the British forces in America in 1756, Cumberland Mountains lie on the West of the town. Population 1,500.
MCMINNVILLE, capital of Warren County, may be considered as occupying the battleground of this revolution. It is 75 miles south-east of Nashville.
MURFREESBORO, the county seat of Rutherford County, and one of the most pleasantly situated towns in the State; is noted as being the scene of several battles and skirmishes; is also noted for its schools and colleges. Population, 5,000.
NEW MARKET, in Jefferson County, is situated in a productive valley, and contains Holstein College, and a female institute.
PULASKI, a thriving town, capital of Giles County, is situated on a branch of Elk River, 75 miles south of Nashville. It is a place of “contention and strife,” between the contending armies of Tennessee; it having changed hands several times. Its once enterprising prosperity is entirely crushed and no business is now transacted there unless it be in relation to military matters. It is the present terminus of the Nashville & Decatur railroad.
ROGERSVILLE JUNCTION, is so named because of its being the junction of the proposed road from Ashville, NC to that place.
TULLAHOMA, a post-town and important railroad station in Coffee County on Rock Creek, 70 miles south-east of Nashville. The McMinnville & Manchester railroad, forms a junction here with the Nashville & Chattanooga railroad.


There are no cities in Texas in any of the railroad guides.


ABINGDON, a handsome town, capital of Washington County, is pleasantly situated in a valley between the main forks of Holston River, about 7 miles from each, and about 8 miles from the Tennessee line. It is the most considerable town in the south-west part of Virginia, and is in the midst of one of the most fertile sections in the State. Population about 1,600.
AMELIA COURT HOUSE, capital of Amelia County, 36 miles from Richmond. It contains besides the county buildings several stores, churches, &.
BARKSDALE, in Halifax County, 127 miles from Richmond and 13 from Danville.
BRISTOL, the point of junction of the Virginia & Tennessee railroad with the East Tennessee & Virginia railroad, is a small town immediately on the line between the States of Tennessee and Virginia. It is a pleasantly situated little town, and will no doubt be the center of considerable business. A newspaper is published here. Population about 700.
BIG LICK, or known also as Gainsborough, is a post-village in Roanoke County, 53 miles from Lynchburg.
BUFORD’S, a post-village in Bedford County, 37 miles from Lynchburg.
BURKEVILLE, in Prince Edward County, at the junction of the South-Side railroad with the Richmond & Danville railroad, 52 miles west of Petersburg.
CENTRAL DEPOT, 96 miles from Lynchburg, is where the Virginia & Tennessee railroad have located their machine shops, &.
CHARLOTTESVILLE, capital of Albemarle County, is a fine town on the right bank of the Riavanna River. It is beautifully situated in a fertile valley. One mile west of town is the University of Virginia, which was founded in 1819 under the auspices of Thomas Jefferson, and is endowed by the State. An Observatory is attached to this institution. Monticello, the residence of Jefferson, who was a native of Albemarle County, is 3 miles distant. Charlottesville contains churches of the Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Baptists and Methodists. Population about 2,600.
CHRISTIANSBURG, capital of Montgomery County, a very pleasant town. Population about 700.
CLARKSVILLE, on the south bank of the Roanoke River, a little below the confluence of the Dan and Staunton, 102 miles south-west of Richmond. It contains four churches, one bank, and over 1,000 inhabitants. It is the terminus of the Roanoke Valley railroad, and is destined to be a town of considerable importance.
COBHAM, in Albemarle County, 83 miles from Richmond.
CULPEPPER COURT HOUSE, more properly known as Fairfax, is the capital of Culpepper County.
DANVILLE, the south-western terminus of the Richmond & Danville road, is situated on the Dan River, at the head of navigation, 5 miles from the North Carolina line, and is the center of a country abounding in coal, iron, limestone, etc. Population, 3,000.
EMERY COLLEGE, is the seat of Emery and Henry Colleges, founded by the Methodists in 1838, and are now in successful operation.
FARMVILLE, in Prince Edward County, finely situated on the Appomattox River. It is a thriving town. Population about 1,600.
FREDERICK’S HALL, in Louisa County, 56 miles from Richmond, is a small post-village.
FREDERICKSBURG, is at the head of tide water on the Rappahannock River.
GLADE SPRING, a post town in Washington County. It is a fine, and healthy location, and is the resort of many visitors.
GORDONSVILLE, in Orange County and at the junction of the north-east section of the Orange & Alexandria railroad with the Virginia Central, 76 miles from Richmond.
GREENWOOD, a post-town in Doddridge County, is 115 miles from Richmond.
HANOVER COURT HOUSE, capital of Hanover County is situated 1 mile from the Pamunky River, and 18 miles north of Richmond. This place is memorable as the scene of Patrick Henry’s early triumphs, and more recently as the birth-place of Henry Clay, and during the present war, has been the scene of blood and carnage.
JACKSON’S RIVER, the Western terminus of the Virginia Central railroad, is a pleasant little town near the stream from whence it derives its name.
JENNING’S ORDINARY, in Nottoway County, took its name from the proprietor of a railroad dining house, 50 miles from Richmond.
JETERSVILLE, in Amelia County, 43 miles from Richmond, a pleasant post-town.
KEYSVILLE, a pleasant post-town, 73 miles west of Richmond.
LIBERTY, a beautiful town, capital of Bedford County, 25 miles west of Lynchburg. It commands a sublime view of the Peaks of Otter, which are not less than 7 miles distant, though they appear to be in the immediate vicinity. It contains the county buildings, four churches, several stores and about 700 inhabitants.
LOUISA COURT HOUSE, capital of Louisa County, 62 miles from Richmond, is a pleasant post-town.
LYNCHBURG, is finely situated on a steep declivity on the right, or south bank of James River, 120 miles WSW of Richmond, and 20 miles south-east of the Blue Ridge. The river is here about 200 yards wide, and is spanned by a fine bridge; it affords abundant water-power, which is employed in the manufacture of cotton, wool, flour,&. The town was founded in 1786, and incorporated in 1805. It is the great tobacco market of the South. Population about 14,000.
MANCHESTER, in Chesterfield County, on the James River, opposite Richmond, with which it is connected by a bridge. It is beautifully situated, and contains many elegant residences erected by persons doing business in Richmond. It has manufactories of tobacco, cotton and flour. Population about 2,400.
MARION, capital of Smythe County, is situated on the middle fork of the Holston River, 160 miles from Lynchburg.
MILLBOROUGH, a post-town in Bath County, 175 miles from Richmond, is pleasantly situated, and is in the vicinity of some celebrated medicinal springs.
MOSSINGFORD, a post-town in Charlotte County. Stages connect from here with several places in Virginia and North Carolina.
MOUNT AIRY, in Pittsylvania County, 145 miles from Lynchburg. It contains several churches, Mills, &.
NORFOLK, at one time the second city in Virginia is capital of Norfolk County, now possessed by troops of the United States. It is situated on the right or North bank of Elizabeth River, 8 miles from Hampton Roads, and 32 miles from the sea. The harbor is large, safe, and easy of access, admitting vessels of the largest class to come to the wharves.
NOTTOWAY COURT HOUSE, capital of Nottoway County, 9 miles from the junction with the Richmond & Danville railroad, and 43 miles from Petersburg. Population about 300.
PETERSBURG, a handsome city in Dinwiddie County, on the right or South bank of the Appomattox River, 22 miles South of Richmond, and 10 miles from James River, at City Point. It is the third city of Virginia in point of population, and possesses extensive facilities for business. Vessels of 100 tons ascend the river to the city and those of larger size to Waltham’s landing, 6 miles below. The falls of the river, which arrest the ascent of the tide immediately above the city, furnish extensive water-power. Population about 16,000.
PORTSMOUTH, the eastern terminus, proper, of the Seaboard & Roanoke road is now in possession of the Federals. It is capital of Norfolk County situated on the left bank of Elizabeth River, opposite the city of Norfolk, 8 miles from Hampton Roads. The river, which is about half a mile wide, forms a safe and excellent harbor, accessible to vessels of the largest size. The town was founded over 100 years ago.
RICHMOND, the seat of Government of the Confederate States, and capital of the State of Virginia, at the head of navigation and tide-water on the James River. It is the largest city in Virginia, and one of the most beautiful in the Confederacy. The situation of the city and the scenery of the environs are much admired, combining in a high degree, the elements of grandeur, beauty, and variety. The river winding along verdant hills which rise with graceful swells and undulations, is interrupted by numerous islands and granite rocks, among which it tumbles and foams for a distance of several miles. The city is built on several hills, the most considerable of which are the Shockoe and Richmond hills, separated from each other by Shockoe Creek. The capital, and other public buildings are situated on Shockoe hill; the top of which is an elevated plain in the west part of the city. The capital, from its size and elevated position, is the most conspicuous object in Richmond. It stands in the center of a public square of about 8 acres, is adorned with a portico of Ionic columns and contains a Marble Statue of Washington. The river is navigable to this point for vessels drawing 10 feet of water. Richmond possesses an immense water power, derived from the falls of James river, which from the commencement of the rapids, a few miles above the city, descends about 100 feet to the tide-level. Few places in the country possess greater natural advantages for productive industry. Population about 36,000.
RINGGOLD, a post-village in Pittsylvania County, 135 miles from Richmond.
ROANOKE, a post-village on the Richmond & Danville railroad, 90 miles from Richmond.
SALEM, capital of Roanoke County, is situated on the Roanoke River, 180 miles west of Richmond. It stands in the great valley between the Blue Ridge and North Mountain. Population about 6,600.
SCOTTSBURG, in Halifax County, is a very pleasant post-village, 100 miles from Richmond.
SHADWELL, post town in Albemarle County and 93 miles from Richmond.
SHAWSVILLE, a post-town in Montgomery County, 76 miles from Lynchburg.
STAUNTON, capital of Augusta County, is situated on a small branch of the Shenandoah River, near its source, and is 136 miles from Richmond. Staunton is the seat of the Western Lunatic Asylum, and of the Virginia Institute for the Death and Dumb, and Blind. It contains several Churches, Academies, Seminaries, &. The surrounding country is highly productive, and beautifully diversified, forming part of the Great Valley of Virginia. In the limestone formation of this region, extensive caverns recur, among which the most remarkable is Weyer’s Cave, about 18 miles north-east of Staunton. Population about 2,600.
TOLERSVILLE, in Louisa County, 56 miles from Richmond, a post-town.
WAYNESBOROUGH, a post town in Augusta County, on the South River, and at the base of the Blue Ridge, 124 miles from Richmond. Population about 600.
WELLVILLE, in Nottoway County, 31 miles from Petersburg.
WITHEVILLE, formerly Evansham, a neat and pleasant town, capital of Wythe County. It is situated in an elevated valley or plateau, among the Allegheny Mountains. Many persons congregate here in quest of recreation and pleasure. Population about 900.